Mazhab Fiqih Islam (Hanafi, Maliki, Syafi'i, Hambali, Ja'fari, Zahiri) - ALIRAN PEMIKIRAN tentang hukum Islam yang penetapannya merujuk kepada Al-Qur'an dan sunah Nabi Muhammas SAW disebut Mazhab Fiqih. Abu Hanifah, Malik bin Anas, asy-Syafi'I, Ahmad bin Hanbali, Ja'far as-Sadiq dan Dawud bin Khalaf adalah fukaha yang pemikirannya membentuk suatu mazhab.

Mazhab Fiqih (Hanafi, Maliki, Syafi'i, Hambali, Ja'fari, Zahiri)

MAZHAB PENDIRIPEMIKIRANPENYEBARAN
HANAFIAbu Hanifah an-Nu'man bin Sabit bin Zauta at-Taimi al-Kufi.
(Kufah, 80 H/699 M-150 H/797 M)
Corak pemikiran hukum :
rasional
Dasar pemikiran hukum :
1. Al-Qur'an
2. Sunah
3. Pendapat sahabat
4. Kias
5. Istihsan
6. Ijmak
7. 'Urf
- Afghanistan
- Cina
- India
- Irak
- Libanon
- Mesir
- Pakistan
- Rusia
- Suriah
- Tunisia
- Turkestan
- Turki
- Wilayah Balkan
MALIKIMalik bin Anas bin Malik bin Abi Amir al-Asbahi, terkenal dengan sebutan Imam Dar al-Hijrah.
(Madinah, 93 H/712 M- 179 H/798 M)
Corak pemikiran hukum :
dipengaruhi sunah yang cenderung tekstual
Dasar pemikiran hukum :
1. Al-Qur'an
2. Sunah
3. Ijmak sahabat
4. Kias
5. Maslahah mursalah
6. 'Amal ahl al-Madinah
7. Pendapat sahabat
- Kuwait
- Spanyol
- Arab Saudi, khususnya Mekah
- Wilayah Afrika, khususnya Mesir, Tunisia, Aljazair dan Maroko
SYAFI'IAbu Abdullah Muhammad bin Idris bin As bin Usman bin Syafi asy-Syafi'I al Muthalibi.
(Gaza, Palestina, 150 H/767 M-Cairo, Mesir, 204 H/20 Januari 820 M)
Corak pemikiran hukum :
antara tradisional dan rasional
Dasar pemikiran hukum :
1. Al-Qur'an
2. Sunah
3. Ijmak
4. Kias
- Bahrein
- India
- Indonesia
- Kazakhstan
- Malaysia
- Suriah
- Turkmenistan
- Yaman
- Arab Saudi khususnya Madinah
- Wilayah Arab Selatan
- Wilayah Afrika Timur
- Wilayah Asia Timur
- Wilayah Asia Tengah
HAMBALIAhmad bin Hanbal bin Hilal bin Asad asy-Syaibani al-Marwazi.
(Baghdad, Rabiulakhir 164 H/780 M- Rabiulawal 241 H/855 M)
Corak pemikiran hukum :
Tradisional (fundamental)
Dasar pemikiran hukum :
1. Al-Qur'an secara zahir dan sunah
2. Fatwa sahabat
3. Jika ada perbedaan fatwa sahabat, digunakan yang lebih dekat dengan Al-Quran
4. Hadis mursal dan daif
5. Kias
- Arab Saudi (mayoritas)
JA'FARIMuhammad Abu Ja'far bin Muhammad bin Ali Zainal Abidin bin Husein bin Ali bin Abi Thalib as-Sadiq.
(Madinah, 80 H/699 M- Madinah, 25 Syawal 148/765 M)
Corak pemikiran hukum :
Tradisional dan rasional
Dasar pemikiran hukum :
1. Al-Qur'an
2. Sunah
3. Ijmak
4. Akal
- Irak
- Iran
- India
- Pakistan
- Nigeria
- Somalia
ZAHRIDawud bin Khalaf al-Isfahani.
(Kufah, 200 H/815 M- Baghdad, 270 H/883 M)
Corak pemikiran hukum :
Tradisional (fundamental)
Dasar pemikiran hukum :
1. Al-Qur'an
2. Sunah
- Irak (mayoritas)
- Andalusia

Referensi Mazhab Fiqih Islam (Hanafi, Maliki, Syafi'i, Hambali, Ja'fari, Zahiri)

Prof. Dr. Azyumardi Azra, MA, Prof. Dr. Abdul Aziz Dahlan, Prof. Dr. Nurcholish Madjid, etc. Ensiklopedi Islam, Penerbit PT. Ichtiar Baru Van Hoeve, Jakarta, 2005.
Prof. Dr. Nurcholish Madjid, Prof. Dr. Azyumardi Azra, MA, Dr. Ahmad Qodri Abdillah Azizy, MA, Dr. A. Chaeruddin, SH., etc. Ensiklopedi Tematis Dunia Islam, Penerbit PT. Ichtiar Baru Van Hoeve, Jakarta, 2008, Editor : Prof. Dr. Taufik Abdullah, Prof. Dr. M. Quraish Shihab, Prof. Dr. H. Ahmad Sukardja, MA.
Sami bin Abdullah bin Ahmad al-Maghluts, Atlas Sejarah Para Nabi dan Rasul, Mendalami Nilai-nilai Kehidupan yang Dijalani Para Utusan Allah, Obeikan Riyadh, Almahira Jakarta, 2008.
Dr. Syauqi Abu Khalil, Atlas Al-Quran, Membuktikan Kebenaran Fakta Sejarah yang Disampaikan Al-Qur'an secara Akurat disertai Peta dan Foto, Dar al-Fikr Damaskus, Almahira Jakarta, 2008.
Tim DISBINTALAD (Drs. A. Nazri Adlany, Drs. Hanafi Tamam, Drs. A. Faruq Nasution), Al-Quran Terjemah Indonesia, Penerbit PT. Sari Agung, Jakarta, 2004
Departemen Agama RI, Yayasan Penyelenggara Penerjemah/Penafsir Al-Quran, Syaamil Al-Quran Terjemah Per-Kata, Syaamil International, 2007.
alquran.bahagia.us, al-quran.bahagia.us, dunia-islam.com, Al-Quran web, PT. Gilland Ganesha, 2008.
Muhammad Fu'ad Abdul Baqi, Mutiara Hadist Shahih Bukhari Muslim, PT. Bina Ilmu, 1979.
Al-Hafizh Zaki Al-Din 'Abd Al-'Azhum Al Mundziri, Ringkasan Shahih Muslim, Al-Maktab Al-Islami, Beirut, dan PT. Mizan Pustaka, Bandung, 2008.
M. Nashiruddin Al-Albani, Ringkasan Shahih Bukhari, Maktabah al-Ma'arif, Riyadh, dan Gema Insani, Jakarta, 2008.
Al-Bayan, Shahih Bukhari Muslim, Jabal, Bandung, 2008.
Muhammad Nasib Ar-Rifa'i, Kemudahan dari Allah, Ringkasan Tafsir Ibnu Katsir, Maktabah al-Ma'arif, Riyadh, dan Gema Insani, Jakarta, 1999.

Demikian artikel islam "Mazhab Fiqih (Hanafi, Maliki, Syafi'i, Hambali, Ja'fari, Zahiri)" semoga dapat berguna dan bermanfaat untuk kita semua. Amin...

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  16. Izinkanlah saya menulis / menebar sejumlah doa, semoga Allaah SWT mengabulkan. Aamiin yaa Allaah yaa rabbal ‘alamiin.

    Lebih dan kurang saya mohon maaf. Semoga Allaah SWT selalu mencurahkan kasih sayang kepada KAUM MUSLIM : yang hidup maupun yang mati, di dunia maupun di akhirat. Aamiin yaa Allaah yaa rabbal ‘aalamiin.

    Asyhaduu anlaa ilaaha illallaah wa asyhaduu anna muhammadarrasuulullaah

    A’uudzubillaahiminasysyaithaanirrajiim

    Bismillahirrahmaanirrahiim

    Alhamdulillaahi rabbil ‘aalamiin,
    Arrahmaanirrahiim
    Maaliki yaumiddiin,
    Iyyaka na’budu wa iyyaaka nasta’iin,
    Ihdinashirratal mustaqiim,
    Shiratalladzina an’amta alaihim ghairil maghduubi ‘alaihim waladhaaliin

    Aamiin

    Bismillaahirrahmaanirrahiim

    Alhamdulillaahirabbil ‘aalamiin, hamdan yuwaafi ni’amahu, wa yukafi mazidahu, ya rabbana lakal hamdu. Kama yanbaghi lii jalaali wajhika, wa ‘azhiimi sulthaanika.

    Allaahumma shalli wa sallim wa baarik, ‘alaa Sayyidinaa wa Nabiyyinaa wa Maulaanaa wa Maulaanaa Muhammadin wa ikhwaanihii minal anbiyaa-i wal mursaliin, wa azwaajihim wa aalihim wa dzurriyyaatihim wa ash-haabihim wa ummatihim ajma’iin.

    ALLAAHUMMAFTAHLII HIKMATAKA WANSYUR ‘ALAYYA MIN KHAZAA INI RAHMATIKA YAA ARHAMAR-RAAHIMIIN.

    RABBI INNII LIMAA ANZALTA ILAYYA MIN KHAIRIN FAQIIR.

    Allaahummaghfirlii waliwaalidayya war hamhumaa kama rabbayaanii shagiiraa.

    Rabbana hablana min azwaajina, wa dzurriyyatina qurrata a’yuniw, waj’alna lil muttaqiina imaamaa.

    Ya Allaah, tetapkanlah kami selamanya menjadi Muslim.

    Ya Allaah, percepatlah kebangkitan KAUM MUSLIM. Pulihkanlah kejayaan KAUM MUSLIM, Lindungilah KAUM MUSLIM dari kesesatan - terutama perpecahan dan kemurtadan - dan berilah KAUM MUSLIM tempat mulia di akhirat.

    Ya Allaah, jadikanlah INDONESIA DAN DUNIA MUSLIM tetap dimiliki KAUM MUSLIM sekaligus baldatun thayyibatun wa rabbun ghafuur. Jadikanlah DUNIA NON MUSLIM dimiliki KAUM MUSLIM. Jadikanlah musuh Islam ditaklukan KAUM MUSLIM.

    Allaahumma innaa nas’aluka salaamatan fiddiini waddun-yaa wal akhirati wa ’aafiyatan fil jasadi wa ziyaadatan fil ‘ilmi wabarakatan firrizqi wa taubatan qablal mauti, wa rahmatan ‘indal mauti, wa maghfiratan ba’dal maut. Allahuma hawwin ‘alainaa fii sakaraatil mauti, wannajaata minannaari wal ‘afwa ‘indal hisaab.

    Allaahumma inna nas aluka husnul khaatimah wa na’uudzubika min suu ul khaatimah.

    Allaahuma inna nas’aluka ridhaka waljannata wana’uudzubika min shakhkhatika wannaar.

    Allaahumma ashlih lanaa diinanal ladzii huwa ‘ishmatu amrina Wa ashlih lanaa dun-yaanal latii fii haa ma’asyunaa. Wa ashlih lanaa aakhiratanal latii ilaihaa ma’aadunaa. Waj’alil hayaata ziyadatan lanaa fii kulli khairin. Waj’alil mauta raahatan lanaa min kulli syarrin

    YA ALLAAH, IZINKANLAH SEGALA NAMA DAN GELAR SAYYIDINA WA NABIYYINA WA MAULAANAA MUHAMMAD SHALLALLAAHU’ALAIHI WA AALIHI WA SHABIHI WA UMMATIHI WA BARAKA WAS SALLAM MEWUJUDKAN BERKAH KE SEANTERO SEMESTA – KHUSUSNYA BAGI KAMI, KELUARGA KAMI DAN KAUM MUSLIM.

    —— doa khusus untuk PARA NABI, PARA KELUARGANYA, PARA SAHABATNYA, SEMUA YANG BERJASA PADA (PARA) NABI, PARA SALAF AL-SHAALIH, PARA SYUHADA, PARA WALI, PARA HABAIB, PARA IMAM, PARA ULAMA DAN SEMUA YANG BERJASA PADA ISLAM, SERTA SEMUA MUSLIM SALEH YANG (TELAH) WAFAT. Semoga Allaah selalu mencurahkan kasih sayang kepada mereka.

    ALLAAHUMMAGHFIRLAHUM WARHAMHUM WA’AAFIHIM WA’FU ‘ANHUM
    ALLAAHUMMA LAA TAHRIMNAA AJRAHUM WA LAA TAFTINNAA BA’DAHUM WAGHFIRLANAA WALAHUM
    ———————


    Rabbanaa aatinaa fiddun-yaa hasanataw wa fil aakhirati hasanataw wa qinaa ‘adzaabannaar wa adkhilnal jannata ma’al abraar.

    Rabbanaa taqabbal minna innaka antassamii’ul aliimu wa tub’alainaa innaka antattawwaaburrahiim. Washshalallaahu ‘alaa sayyidinaa wa nabiyyinaa wa maulaanaa muhammadin wa ‘alaa aalihi wa shahbihi wa ummatihi wa baraka wassallam.


    HASBUNALLAAH WANI’MAL WAKIIL NI’MAL MAULA WANI’MAN NASHIIR.

    Subhana rabbika rabbil ‘izzati, ‘amma yasifuuna wa salamun ‘alal anbiyaa-i wal mursaliin, walhamdulillahirabbil ‘aalamiin.

    Aamiin yaa Allaah yaa rabbal ‘aalamiin.

    Ganie, Indra – Bintaro Jaya, Tangerang Selatan, Banten, Indonesia

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